INTRODUCTION

Botanical Name:Lycoperscion esculentus Mill

Family:Solanaceous

CLIMATE

Tomato is warm season crop. Grows well is those retain that are free from frost. It can’t be grown successfully in places of higher rainfall. Temperature after tomato crops in following ways. 1. Optimum temperature for seed germination is 26 to 320C. 2. The optimum temperature required for its cultivation is 15 – 270C. At higher temperature its blossoms drops off. The damages great when high temp is combined with dry wind. It will result in the failure of fruit set due to drying of stigmatic liquid. 3. Colour development: In tomato red colour is due the pigment Lycopene. Lycopene is highest at 18 to 260C while production of this pigment drops off rapidly above 300C and ‘nil’ above 400C. 4. Carothe is developed rapidly at high temperature. 5. If fruits exposed to direct sunlight, their tops may turn whitish yellow & become leathery in texture. This is common in late varietes during summer season. This condition is known as sun – scald. 6. A warm, sunny weather is most suited for proper ripening, colour, quality & high yield.

SOIL

Sandy loam soil with a well drained clay sub soil is best suited. Light soils are good for early variety. While clay loan or silt loam soils are well suited for heavy yield (Late variety), grows at pH 6.0 to 7.0 satisfactorily. The soil should be well prepared & leveled by ploughing the land 4 – 5 times.

SOWING TIME AND SEED RATE

In our region tomato can be grown throughout they year. Sowing is done in May – June for kharif crop, August – Sept for Rabi Crop and December – January for summer crop. The seeds are sown in well prepared nursery beds 500 gms to 600 gms seed is enough for planting one ha of land. When the plants are about 3 to 4 weeks old, they should be transplanted.

LAYOUT AND SPACING

Ridges and furrow type of layout is used. The spacing recommended for tomato crop is 60cm to 75 cm x 60 cm.

MANURES AND FERTILIZERS

30 to 50 cartloads of FYM or compost should be applied in the soil & incorporated in it during field preparation. 75 to 100 kg P and 50kg K should be applied for getting better yield of tomato.

IMPROVED VARIETIES

Marglobe, Pusa Rubi, Roma, Sioux, Pusa early dwarf, Punjab chohara. Devgiri, ATV-1.

  1. Bhagyashree:

Released during 1992 especially for processing purpose. Fruits are medium ‘to big (70- 80 g) and round in shape, dark red in colour, high lycopene content and low seed content Average yield is 520 quintals per hectare. (M.P.K.V. Rahuri).

  1. Dhasashree: Developed from a cross between 407D3P2DBK x LA-124 by employing pedigree method of selection and released in 1992. Fruits medium small (60-70 g) and round with orange colour. Tolerant to spotted wilt virus and leaf curl vims. It has high yield potential (600-800 q/ha). Suited for local fresh markets. (M.P.K.V. Rahuri).
  2. Rajashree: It is F1 hybrid developed for distant marketing and released in 1994. Plants are semi-indeterminate. Fruits are of medium size (60-80 g) with orange red colour having good keeping quality. It is less susceptible to TLCV. Average yield is 750 quintals per hectare. (M.P.K.V. Rahuri).
  3. ATV 1: It is a determinate type of variety. Leaves are large with dark green colour. Fruits are medium size (90-95 g/fruit) pear shape with blood red colour, pulp colour is rosy and green. It is moderately resistant to early blight. It produces 400 – 500 quintals fruits in a hectare. It is released in 1985. (M.A-U. Parbhani) .
  4. Devgiri: Devgiri (ATV-2) is superior to ATV-1 and Pusa Ruby. Fruits are of medium size (90-95 g/fmit). Fruits have good taste and attractive colour. It is resistant to early blight and leaf curl virus diseases. Average yield is 5 50 quintals per hectare. (M.A.U. Parbhani).
  5. ATH-1: It is F1 hybrid between male sterile female ACC 2549 and male parent Hawai 7992. Average yield is 550 quintals per hectare. It has indeterminate growth habit. Average fruit weight is 110-150 g TSS is 7.0 per cent and fruit colour is attractive red. It is resistant to early blight disease. (MLA.U. Parbhani).

7 .Vasimdhara: It is the Fl hybrid between sterile female .PMSK -2 and male parent Kalyanpur T-2, recommended in 2000. Determinate type, fruit weight 70-75 g and colour is attractive red. Resistant to early blight and spotted wilt virus disease. Average fruit yield is 550 – 600 quintals per hectare.(MA.U. Parbhani).

  1. Parbhani Yashisree: It is recommended in 1999. It is a hybrid derivative of the interspecific cross between Lycoperscion esculentus x L. hirsutum and back cross to ATV-2. It is resistant to early blight and produces 13 per cent higher yield than Bhagyashree and ATV-2. Average yield is 600 quintals per hectare. (M.A.U. Parbhani).
  2. Sonali: It is a high yielding, good quality and bacterial wilt resistant variety. Sonali was released during the year 1986. It yields about 200-250 quintals per hectare, suitable for processing. It has good keeping and transport qualities. (BSKKV, Dapoli)

IRRIGATION

It should be so arranged that the soil remains continuously moderately moist. Avoid excessive irrigation as it induces the plants to run to vines and* drop the blossoms off There is no need of irrigation during rainy season if, there is a proper distribution of rainfall. When the rainy season is over, the crop may be irrigated twice or thrice in a month. The crop planted during the winter season will need .irrigation once in about 20 day. While the crop transplanted during spring season will need irrigation more frequently, say, one in ten days in the beginning, and later on during the hot season, the tomato crop is irrigated once a week. During the winter season, whenever there is a danger of frost, the crop must be irrigated so that the temperature may not go down too low and damage the plants. Tomatoes, that have been growing when moisture is low, may split severely after a rain of even after a heavy-Jew to an influx of water into the fruit through roots, sterns or through the cracks in the skin near the calyx. Therefore, the crop should be irrigated carefully during the fruit ripening stage

INTERCULTURAL OPERATIONS

Frequent inter-tillage and cultivation should be done in the field to keep it free from weeds. As the plants grow bigger, all the intercultural operations should be shallow, so that the roots which spread unto a depth of 5 cm below the surface soil may not be injured. Though pruning and staking in the tomato .crop increase cost of cultivation, yet according to Mehta (lit. cit.) and Fernandez (1963), both these operations make a tomato-plant grow more better and larger tomatoes resulting in a higher yield per hectare. But both of these operations depend on the time that is at the disposal of the grower and the availability and cost of the staking material.

According to Fernandez, through pruning tomato plant may be made single-stem in the following ways:

All the side shoots are removed so that plant may use all its food and energy to develop its fruits and very little of it is left for the foliage. These are then staked. In this way the plants get a 1.2 meter square area and bear more fruits.

The following are the advantages of pruning to single stem and staking:

1) They produce more fruits per hectare per plant an average.

2) They yield earlier and give rise to more cluster.

3) They make picking more rapid .and cultivation and spraying easier.

4) They give cleaner more uniform and lager fruits.

When the fruits ripen, the plots become a treat to the eye with their ripe red colour. According to Fernandez, the vine ripened tomatoes from single -stem plants are as nutritious and tasty as the fresh laid eggs.

Disadvantages of this method: i) Cost of cultivation increases considerably.

  1. ii) According to Mehta, there are more changes of sun scalding in the excessively warm weather due lo fruits being exposed to sun.

HARVESTING

Tomato fruits are picked up from the plants by grasping them by the hand and dislodging them from the vine by twisting keeping the thumb pressed against the vine.

According to the Use of Fruits, they are Harvested in Following Stages:

1) Green Stage: About a fortnight before turning (development of a trace of redness at (he styler end of the fruit), the fruits will develop normal colour of the vine though they are still green yet they may be fully developed. These fruits are picked and sent to distant markets.

2) Pink Stage: At this stage red or pink colour on the fruits varies from a trace at the blossom end to a considerable extent covering the surface. Though at this stage most of the fruits are red, yet they are not fully ripe. They are picked for local markets.

3) Ripe Stage: At this stage the surface of most of the fruits is red and the softening of the fruits begins. They may be picked for home or table use.

4) Full Ripe Stage: At this stage the fruits have approached maximum colour development and may feel soft to the touch. Now the starch is changed into sugar. They are ordinarily used within 24 hours of picking and are consumed or used for canning and pickling.

YIELD

It varies 160 to 200 quintals per hectare according to season and variety planted Duration of crop ranges from 160 to 180 days.

INSECT PEST

  1. Fruit Borer: Damages leaves shoot & fruits. Fruits become unfit for consumption. Control: Spray carbaryl 50 WP @ 0.3% or Carbaryl Dust 10% @ 35kg/ha. Infested shoot & fruit removed & destroyed.
  2. Jassids: They suck the sap from tender part & leaves. Control: Spray Endosulfan 35EC @ 0.5%orPhospomidon 85 @ 0.2%.
  3. Mealy Bug: A scale insect that covers up the whole plant and suck the sap from the plant

Control: Removal of infected shoots and spraying the plant with Malathion (Cythion 50 EC, Malathion-50 EC) @ Jml per litre of water is the best method of controlling Uzis past

DISEASES

1) Early blight: Dark brown to black spots are form on leaves & stem with concentric rings on them. Plant growth is affected, fruit size & yield is also affected. Control measures : Spray copper Oxy-choride 50 WP @ 0.30% or Zineb 75 WP 0.2%.

2) Damping Off: Aliected seedling rots at collar region in nursery bed due to stagnation of water in nursery.

Control measures: Treat seed with 1% Mercuric fungicide @ 2.5—3.0 gm/kg. of seed before sowing.

3) Fruit rot: Brownish -spot appear on fruit at the point of contact between fruit and soil. Fruit decay rapidly and become unfit for consumption.

Control Measures:

  1. Support the plant properly, plant on ridges in irrigated soil.
  2. Don’t plant on poorly drained soil, iii. Spray Bordeaux mixture.

4) Virus diseases:

According to Chauhan (1967), tomato mosaic is the most common virus disease. It causes light and dark green mottling hi the foliage followed by slight curling and some malformation of the leaflets. The plants become some what stunted in the beginning. and later on-fruit setting is also reduced. According to Mehta (1959), various strains of this viruses striking yellow mottling of leaves, stems and fruits with curling dwarfing and distoration of the foliage and also dark brown streaking of the stems and leaves.

Control measures:

  1. Uprooting and burning the disease affected plants as soon as they are noticed is the best method to check the spread of this disease.
  2. The insect vector should be controlled by spraying the crop with Dimetnoate (Rogor 30 EC) or Oxy dernition methyl (Metasystox-25EC) @ I ml or phosfamidon (Dernicron-1 OOEC) @ 0.5 ml per liter of water