Panchagavya or panchakavyam is a concoction prepared by mixing five products of cow. The three direct constituents are cow dung, urine, and milk; the two derived products are curd and ghee. These are mixed in proper ratio and then allowed to ferment.


Panchagavya consists of nine products viz. cow dung, cow urine, milk, curd, jaggery, ghee, banana, Tender coconut and water. When suitably mixed and used, these have miraculous effects.

Cow dung – 7 kg

Cow ghee – 1 kg

Mix the above two ingredients thoroughly both in morning and evening hours and keep it for 3 days

Cow Urine – 10 liters

Water – 10 liters

After 3 days mix cow urine and water and keep it for 15 days with regular mixing both in morning and evening hours. After 15 days mix the following and panchagavya will be ready after 30 days.

Cow milk – 3 liters

Cow curd – 2 liters

Tender coconut water – 3 liters

Jaggery – 3 kg

Well ripened poovan banana – 12 nos.


All the above items can be added to a wide mouthed mud pot, concrete tank or plastic can as per the above order. The container should be kept open under shade. The content is to be stirred twice a day both in morning and evening. The Panchagavya stock solution will be ready after 30 days. (Care should be taken not to mix buffalo products. The products of local breeds of cow is said to have potency than exotic breeds). It should be kept in the shade and covered with a wire mesh or plastic mosquito net to prevent houseflies from laying eggs and the formation of maggots in the solution. If sugarcane juice is not available add 500 g of jaggery dissolved in 3 liter of water.


Spray system

3% solution was found to be most effective compared to the higher and lower concentrations investigated. Three litres of Panchagavya to every 100 litres of water is ideal for all crops. The power sprayers of 10 litres capacity may need 300 ml/tank. When sprayed with power sprayer, sediments are to be filtered and when sprayed with hand operated sprayers, the nozzle with higher pore size has to be used.

Flow system

The solution of Panchagavya can be mixed with irrigation water at 50 litres per hectare either through drip irrigation or flow irrigation

Seed/seedling treatment

3% solution of Panchagavya can be used to soak the seeds or dip the seedlings before planting. Soaking for 20 minutes is sufficient. Rhizomes of Turmeric, Ginger and sets of Sugarcane can be soaked for 30 minutes before planting.

Seed storage

3% of Panchagavya solution can be used to dip the seeds before drying and storing them.


  • Pre flowering phase : Once in 15 days, two sprays depending upon duration of crops
  • Flowering and pod setting stage  : Once in 10 days, two sprays
  • Fruit/Pod maturation stage : Once during pod maturation