Botanical Name: Abelmoschus esculentus L. Syn. Hibiscus esculentus
Bhendi is one of the popular vegetable in India. It is cultivated extensively all the year round for its immature fruits. Bhendi fruits are used as a vegetable. The stem of the plant is used for the extraction of the fiber.
Bhendi is a warm season vegetable crop and requires a long warm growing season. In India it is grown is summer months and during the rainy season. It is highly sensitive to frost. Seeds germinate poorly at ground temperature of 20 °C or less.
SOIL AND ITS PREPARATION
Bhendi can do well in all kinds of soil. .But sandy loam and clay-loam soils are best for its cultivation. The optimum pH range is between 6 and 6.8. The land is prepared by giving 5-6 ploughings. Cartloads of FYM or Compost should be incorporated during land preparation.
SEED RATE & SOWING TIME
For kharif season seeds are sown in the month of June – July. The seed rate for rainy season is 8 to 10 kg. For summer season it is sown in the month or January-February. The seed rate for summer season is 12 to 15 kg/ha. For winter season it is sown in August”- September.
LAYOUT & SPACING
Ridges & furrow type of layout is use. Sometime bhendi is also sown at the border of main crop & layout is same as for main crop. For summer crop spacing is 45×30 cm. & Rainy season crop spacing is 60 x 45 cm.
Pusa Makhamali, Pusa sawani, Vaishali, Vagmi, pb. Padmini, Selection 2-2, Pusa sawani is fairly mosaic tolerant Parbhani Kranti (Resistant to virus disease). Okra (Abelntoschus esculentus).
- Parbhani Kranti:
It is yellow vein mosaic resistant variety released in 1985 by MAU, Parbhani- It is derived from back cross of Abelmoschus manihot x A. esculentus. Two back crosses were made using Pusa sawani (A. esculentus) as a recurrent parent followed by selection in the subsequent generations- It is a yellow vein mosaic virus (YVMy) resistant variety isolated in F8 generation. Plants flower in 45-60 days. Fruits are dark green in colour, smooth, lender and slender.(MAU, Parbhani)
- Phule Kirti:
It is the F1 hybrid of okra suitable for both the kharif and summer seasons. It is also suitable for warm and moderate humid regions. Stem is green in colour with red patches. Fruits are green in colour. It is resistant to yellow vein mosaic virus. Shelf life is 3-4 days. It gives on an average yield of 163 quintals per hectare. Besides it is released through the State Variety Release Committee of Maharashtra, it is also notified by the Central Sub Committee on Crop Standards, Notification and Varietal Release at the national level.(MPKV, Ramrri)
MANURES & FERTILIZERS
20 to 25 tonnes well rottened FYM mixed with soil during field preparation. For rainy season, crop apply 50 kg; N, 50kg P2O5 per hectare. For summer season 40 kg N, 40 kg P2O5 should be applied.
Weeding, thinning and earthling up is the important intercultural operations of bhendi. Earthing up in the rows should be done in rainy season crop. Application of herbicides for controlling weeds in bhendi is found effective. Basalin (Fluchoralin 48 per cent) @ 1-2 liter per hectare, and soil application of Tok-E-25 @ 5 liter per hectare effectively controlled the weeds.
Pre sowing irrigation should be given in the soils having no sufficient moisture. First irrigation is given just after sowing and then the field is irrigated after 4 to 5 days in summer and 10 to 12 days in winter season.
Flowering begins from 35 to 40 days after sowing and fruits are ready for harvest four to five days after flowering Bhendi pods may be harvested continuously at some intervals. The young fruits can be harvested in the morning. Delay in harvesting may make the fruits fibrous and they loose their tenderness and taste.
YIELD & CROP DURATION
Rainy season crop gives 7500 kg/ha. Summer crop gives 5000 kg/ha. Duration is 100 & 90 days respectively.
- Stem and Fruit Borer:
The caterpillar bores into the growing points of the of the plant and later on U also flower bud and young fruit.
Control Measures: Spraying the crop with carbaryl Sevin-50 W, Sevimol 0.1 per cent, or Monocrotophos Nuvacron) 0.1 per cent or Endosulfan (Thiodan -35 EC) 0.97 percent on the 40 and 60 days after sowing is found beneficial.
The hoppers suck the cell sap from the leaves, causes curling of leaves.
Control Measures: Spraying the crop with Dicblorovos (Nuvaii) 76 EC or Malathion -50 EC) @ 2 ml per liter of water or Dimethoate (Roger -30 EC) or Oxydemiton Methyl (Metasystox —25 EC) @ 1 ml per liter of water can control this pest.
Diseases of Bhendi
- Yellow Vein Mosaic or Vein Clearing Disease:
It is a most serious disease of bhendi, id severe cases the’ leaves as well as the fruits become yellow andruiting is badly affected. The disease is transmitted only by insect vector known as whit fly.
- Uprooting and burning the disease affected plants as soon as they are noticed is the best method to check the spread of this disease.
- The disease tolerant variety like pusa Sawani should be cultivated, in) Control of insect vector by spraying the crop with Dimathoate (Rogor-30 EC) or Monocrotophos (Monocil) @ 1 ml. per liter of water indirectly helps to check the speed of this disease.
- Powdery Mildew:
Grayish mealy growth is found mainly on the lower surface of leves. The severely affected leaves turn yellow and drop off. The outbreak of this disease is associated with dry weather.
- The disease can effectively be controlled by dusting the crop with suplhur or Spraying with Wetable sulphur (0.1 to 0,2 percent) or -dincocarp (Karathane) 0.1 per cent or casan 0.4 per cent or Elosal 0.4 per cent at fortnightly interval.
- Die Back:
In severe infestation, die back of the apical parts of the plant occurs. The fungus was shown to be seed borne.
- Seed treatment with mercuric chloride helps to check the spread of this disease.