DRIP IRRIGATION – ITS COMPONENTS & FUNCTIONS

It is termed as trickle irrigation also and can be define as slow and frequent application of water to the plant root zone under low pressure. The drip irrigation is an advanced method of irrigation suitable for water scarcity areas. It uses the water very economically and efficient. It applies the correct quantity of water … Continue reading DRIP IRRIGATION – ITS COMPONENTS & FUNCTIONS

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WATER RESOURCES

WATER (H2O) Water is indispensable for human, animals and plant life. It is a part of all organisms, some of which contain more than 90 percent. Water is essential part of protoplasm. It is an important ingredient in photosynthesis. About 400 to 500 liters of water is necessary for production of a one kilogram of … Continue reading WATER RESOURCES

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SPRINKLER IRRIGATION AND ITS ADAPTABILITY

SPRINKLER IRRIGATION It is a overhead irrigation, which spray the water through nozzles under pressure over the soil and crop. In sprinkler method of irrigation, water is spread into the air and allowed to fall on the ground surface somewhat resembling rainfall. The spray is developed by flow of water under pressed through small orifices … Continue reading SPRINKLER IRRIGATION AND ITS ADAPTABILITY

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SOURCES & FUNCTIONS OF WATER

SOURCES OF WATER The major sources of water available either for agriculture or for human consumption is obtained from the precipitation in the form of rainfall or snowfall. Run-off from precipitation drains through streams and rivers or collects in surface depressions forming tanks or ponds. Water of streams stored in reservoirs or is diverted directly … Continue reading SOURCES & FUNCTIONS OF WATER

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MOVEMENT OF WATER IN SOIL

The movement of water from the soil surface into and through the soil is called water intake. It is the expression of several factors including infiltration and percolation. INFILTRATION Infiltration is the term applied to the process of water entry into the soil generally (but not necessarily) through the soil surface and vertically downward. This … Continue reading MOVEMENT OF WATER IN SOIL

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METHODS OF IRRIGATION

Four Types: A) Surface irrigation – Flooding, Boarder, Furrow, basin B) Sub Surface irrigation C) Drip irrigation D) Sprinkler irrigation There are three principle methods of irrigation viz. surface, sub surface and aerial, overhead or sprinkler irrigation. SURFACE IRRIGATION: There are four variations under this method viz. (1) Flooding, (2) Bed or border method (Saras … Continue reading METHODS OF IRRIGATION

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INFORMATION REQUIRE TO DESIGN OF DRIP SYSTEM

The following general information’s are required for designing a drip irrigation system: WATER SOURCE: The source of water is usually a well or a tank storing rainfall runoff. TYPES OF CROPS: Different crops required different plant spacing and irrigation requirement. The general layout of the system and especially the emitter were depending on the type … Continue reading INFORMATION REQUIRE TO DESIGN OF DRIP SYSTEM

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DRAINAGE

 Drainage means the process of removing water from the soil that is in excess of the needs of crop plants. Drainage is the removal of excess gravitational water from the soil by artificial means to enhance crop production. A SOIL MAY NEED ARTIFICIAL DRAINAGE FOR ONE OR TWO REASONS. When there is a high water … Continue reading DRAINAGE

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COMPONENTS OF THE SPRINKLER SYSTEM

PUMPING SET The pump usually lifts the water from the sources and pushes it through the distribution system and the sprinkler. MAIN LINE: Main lines may be permanent or portable. Permanent lines are used where crop requires full season irrigation and steel pipes or PVC pipes are used for permanent main line. The permanent lines … Continue reading COMPONENTS OF THE SPRINKLER SYSTEM

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CLASSIFICATION OF SOIL WATER

When water is added to dry soil either by rain or irrigation, it is distributed around the soil particles, where it is held by adhesion and cohesive forces. It displaces air in the pore spaces and eventually fills the pores. When all the pores, large and small are filled, soil is said to be saturated … Continue reading CLASSIFICATION OF SOIL WATER

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ABSORPTION & TRANSPIRATION OF MOISTURE

Absorption of water is not dependent of process but it is related to transpiration. Absorption is controlled by rate of water loss in transpiration at least when water is readily available to the roots. Absorption and transpiration are linked by the continuous water column in xylem system of plants. Due to the loss of water … Continue reading ABSORPTION & TRANSPIRATION OF MOISTURE

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