CAPSICUM PROFILE

INTRODUCTION

Botanical Name

  1. Capsicum Annum L.(Fruits are long or small, but pungency is high.)
  2. Capsicum frutescence L. (Large and inflated variety with very little pungency.)

Family: Solanaceous.

Chilli is one of the most valuable crops of India. The crop is grown largely for its fruits all over the India. It is used in India as a principle ingredient of various curries, and chutneys. It is also used for vegetables, spices, condiments, sauces and pickles. Dry chillies are used for curry powder. Red colour in chili is due to “Capsanthin”. Pungency in chillies is due to the active constituent “Capsaicin”, an alkaloid, is extracted from chillies and is used to medicine

CLIMATE

The chili is a plant of tropical and sub -tropical region -It grows well in warm and humid climate and a temperature of 200 C to 250C. Low moisture in soil during blossom development and fruit formation causes the bud, deblossom and fruit drops. Excessive rainfall is detrimental to the crops, because it brings about defoliation and rotting of the plant. As a rained crop, it is grown in areas receiving an annual precipitation of 25-30 inches.

SOIL

Chilli can be grown in all type of soft but the sandy – loam, clay loam and loam soils are best suited for it, the soil must be well drained and well aerated. Acidic soils are not suitable for chili cultivation. The land is prepared by giving 2-3 ploughings and clod crushing after each ploughing. Compost or FYM @ 150-200 quintals should be spread and mixed well in the soil at least 15-20 days before sowing. At the last ploughing 0. H. C. @ 8-10 kg per acre of Aldrin or Heftaf @ 10-15 kg per acre should be applied to the soil to protect the crop from white ants and other soil pests.

SOWING TIME AND SEED RATE

In case of chilli crop, for kharif it sown in May – June and for summer crop, it is sown in the month of January. I to I 1/2 kg seed is required for 1 hectare area.

LAYOUT AND SPACING

Ridges and furrow type of .layout is used. Seedlings are raised on raised bed. Spacing for rained crops is 60 x 45 cm & for irrigated crops is 60 x 60 cm.

FERTILIZERS

9 to 10 tones / hectare of FYM or compost is applied at the time of field preparation. In chilli for rained crop 50 kg N and 25 kg P should be applied 1/2 dose of N full dose of P applied at the time of transplanting. Remaining Yi dose of N applied 30 days after transplanting for .irrigated crop 100 kg N, 50kg P & 50 kg K should be applied per hectare. Fertilizers are applied in four equal doses. First applied at the time transplanting remaining doses are applied at 4th, 111 & 13′ week after transplanting.

VARIETIES

Improved varieties: N.P. 46, JwaJa, G-3, CA-960, Pant C-t X – 235, AKC – 79-18, Parbhani Tejas.

Local: Achalpuri, Bhavapuri, Vashirn, Malkapuri.

Chilli: (Capsicum annuum)

  1. Agnirekha: It is a derivative of the cross Dondaicha x Iwala Released for green fruits by MPKV, Rahuri in 1992, for summer season. Further it is also recommended for cultivation by Project Directorate of Vegetable Research in 1996 for Zone VII. Plants tall and spreading, fruits long, bold, smooth and light green in colour. Duration is 180 days. Average yield of green” fruit is 250 quintals per hectare. Average yield of dry chilli is 27 quintals per hectare. (MPKV, Rahuri).
  2. Musahvadi: Developed by selection from local collection of village Musahvadi, Dist. Ahmednagar (M.S.). It is released in 1988 by MPKV, Rahuri and also by the Central Sub Committee on Crop Standards, Notification and Varietal Release for Zones IV, V, VII and VIII in 1987 at the national level. Plants are tall, spreading habit with dark green foliage. Fruits are smooth and medium long. Mature fruits dark green with black patches, ripe fruits dark red with retentive colour. Duration is 180 days. It is tolerant to die back and wilt diseases. Average yield of red dry chilli fruits is 19 quintals per hectare. (MPKV, Rahuri).
  3. Phule Jyoti: It is released in 1995 for kharif season. Plants are tall with spreading and branching habit from ground level. Leaves broad and dark green in colour. Fruits are smooth, medium long, borne in cluster of 5-6 with pendent habit. It is tolerant to thrips, mites and wilt. Average yield of green fruits 250 quintals per hectare and that of red dry fruits is 24 quintals per hectare. (MPKV, Rahuri).
  4. Pbiile Sai: Developed by selection from the cross Pani C-l x Kamandalow. It has high yield potential under rain fed conditions. It retains the colour in storage for 6-7 months. It is moderately resistant to thrips and anthracnose (MPKV Rahuri). %. Phule.
  5. Suryamukhi: It is released in 1996. Plants tall, spreading and branching habit from ground level, leaves broad and dark green. Fruits smooth, medium long, borne in cluster of 5-6 and upright erect. It is tolerant to thrips and wilt. Average yield of green fruits is 190 quintals per hectare and yield of red dry fruits is 22 quintals per hectare. (MPKV, Rahuri).
  6. Phule Mukta: It is developed by employing pure line selection and released by MPKV Rahuri. It has dark green foliage, plants tall and medium spreading. Fruits are small, dark green and smooth. Ripe fruits are dark red in colour. Duration is 210 days. Resistant to powdery mildew and Fusarium wilt. It is tolerant to leaf curl, thrips and mites and resistant to lodging, suitable for both the kharif and summer seasons. Average yield of dry chilli is 23 quintals per hectare. MPKV, Rahuri).
  7. Surkta: Surkta has been released for Vidarbha region both for the rain fed conditions of kharif season. It produces bright deep red fruits. Fruits are very hot in taste. It gives about 35 per cent higher fruit yield compared to variety CA-960. Yield of red ripe fruits is 68 quintals per hectare. (PDKV, Akola)

8 Jayanti: It is notified during the year 1996-97. It has been released for Vidarbha and at the national level under irrigated conditions. Plants are medium to tall in height with light green foliage. Fruits are medium to long in length (9-10 cm) with notch on l/3rf portion from the tip of the frill. Fruits are pale green, white green and turn red on ripening. Yield of red ripe chilli is 18-20 quintals per hectare. (PDKV, Akola)

  1. Parbhani Tejas: It is released in 1992 for Marathwada region for rain fed as well as irrigated conditions for green as well as red dry fruit production. It has pungency, fruits are longer (maximum 22 cm). Yield of dry red fruit is 18 quintals per hectare. Average yield on 20 farmers’ field has been found 11.56 quintals per hectare as compared to 7.63 in case of NP-46. (MAU, Parbhani)
  2. Kankan Kirti: Plants are dwarf with 50-60 cm height and dark green leaves. Dark green fruits turn red when mature, mild pungent. It yields 12-14 tones per hectare of green chilli. Fruits are dark green, lustrous, good keeping quality and good export potential. (BSKKV, Dapoli)

IRRIGATION

Chilli is grown both as rain fed and irrigated crop. First irrigation is given after the transplanting and subsequent irrigations are given 5-7 days interval depending on weather and conditions of soil during summer and rainy season and after .Every 10 to 15 days in winter. The maintenance of uniform soil moisture is essential to prevent blossom .and fruit drops. Bosaocn and Garibaldi (1971) reported that the irrigation when soil moisture tension exceeded one atmosphere increased the yield of the unshared plant, but the number of fruits was unaffected. Flower drop in chillies is a great problem and it depends on the high temperature, low moisture availability, shading and light intensity. Flowers and /or flower bud abscission was increased under short day (day length 12 hours) and high temperature (28 °C to. 33 “Q. Spraying the chilli with Planofix (NAA) at 10 ppm at flower initiation stage and 15 days later (peak flowering) reduces the flower drop and increases the fruit set.

INTERCULTURE

2-3 shallow hoeing should be given to the soil to kill the weeds and provide soil mulch during early stages of growth- Application of weedicides for controlling the weeds is found effective. Lasso @ 1.5 litre per hectare with one hand weeding or Tok-E 25@ 2 litres per hectare with one hand weeding were effective in controlling the weeds.

INSECT PESTS

1) Chilli Thrips: Thrips is the common pest which effects the crop throughout its life cycle. But they are more severe when plants begin to flower. These small insects suck the sap from the foliage and lacerate the leaf tissue, which result in curling of leaves and fall down of flowers prematurely.

Control Measures:

Thrips can effectively be controlled by spraying carbaryl 50 W @ 3 gm or Zolene @ 3 ml or Dimethoate (Rogor 30 EC) or Monocrotophos (Monocil) tgi 1 ml per litre of water at fortnightly interval

2) Pod Borer: The caterpillar oat leaves and later on bores the pod, which result in the deterioration of quality and market price of the product.

Control Measures: The control measures are timely spraying the crop with quinalphos (Exalux-25 EC) @ 4 ml or carbaryl 50 W, (Sevin 50 W) @ 3 gm per litre of water, starting from flower bud formation.

3) Aphids: Aphid suck the dap from the plants; they generally attack the crop in winter months and at the later stages of the crop. The quality of the produce is spoiled by imparting blackish colour to the Calyx and pods. They also serve as a Vector to Virus,

Control Measures: The aphids can effectively be controlled by spraying the crop with Dimethoate (Rogor-30 EC) or Methyl Parathion (Metacid 50 EC) @ lm (or Phosphamidon (Demicron-100 EC) @ 0.5 ml per litre of whiter.

Diseases of Chilli:

1) Damping Off: It is a serious disease of brinjal seedlings and mainly occurs in nursery bed. The disease infected seedlings rot at ground level and then the plants fall over ground. The seedlings die in patches.

Control Measures:

  1. The seed bed should be treated with Formalin before sowing of seeds.
  2. The seeds should be treated without water (30 minutes at 520 C) or Cerasan or Agrosan G.N. before sowing of seed.
  3. The seedlings in the nursery should be sprayed with any fungicides at a regular interval.

2) Bacterial Leaf Spot: Small dark, greasy spots are formed on leaf, petiole and tender parts, of the plant. Water soaked spots appear on green fruits. In severe cases the leaf may drop off arid cause considerable loss to the crop.

Control Measures: Spraying Agrimycin – 100 k at 200 ppm plus copper oxychloride 0.3 per cent controls the disease effectively.

3) Anthracnose: Dark sunken spots are formed of fruits and pink or dark coloured dots appear in the centre of the sunken spots. Due to this spots, the fruits rot and fall. The fungus may cause “Die back” of the twigs also. Die back disease attacks mainly the upper portion of the plants spreading gradually from the top to downward; as a result the branches dry up. Moist weather, shade and heavy dew favour the occurrence of the disease.

Control Measures: The control measures are the treatment of seed with Cerasan before sowing, removing and burning of attacked plants or branches and spraying the disease affected crops with Mancozeb (Dithane M-45) @ 2.5 gm per litre of water.

4) Leaf Curl: The disease affected leaves becomes small in size accompanied by downward curling. The leaves may fall off in case of sever attack. The disease usually spreads through insect vectors such as thrips and aphids etc.

Control Measures: Control of insect vectors by spraying the crop with Dimethoate (Rogor -30 EC) or Monocrotophos (Monocil) @ 1 ml per litre of water indirectly helps to check the spread of this disease.

HARVESTING

  1. Chillies which are used for vegetable purposes are generally harvested while they are still green but full grown.
  2. Chillies are harvested at red stage for caning purpose. Chillies used for drying are harvested at full ripe-stage.

 YIELD

The yield varies according to the system of cultivation. The yield of dry chillies of rain fed crop is 200 – 400 kg and that of irrigated crop is 600 – 1000 kg per acre. The proportion of dry to fresh japed chillies varies from 25- to 40 per cent.