3. SOIL
  13. YIELD


(Syn: Egg plant) (Solanum melongena L.) (2n = 24) Hindi: Banigan)

Brinjal is one of the most common tropical vegetables grown in India.

It is known by different names like aubergine (French), begun (Bengali), ringna (Gujarathi), baingan (Hindi) badane (Kannada), waangum (Kashmiri), vange (Marathi), baigan (Hindi) badane (Kannada), waangum (Kashmiri), vange (Marathi), baigan (Oriya), Vashuthana (Malayalam), Kathiri (Tamil), venkaya (Telugu) and Peethabhala (Sanskrit).

A large number of cultivars differing in size, shape and colour of fruits are grown in India. Immature fruits are used in curries and a variety of dishes are prepared out of brinjal. Fruits are moderate sources of vitamins and minerals like phosphorous, calcium and iron and nutritive value varies from variety to variety. Brinjal is also valued for its medicinal properties and has got decholestrolizing property primarily due to presence of poly-unsaturated fatty acids (linoleic and lenolenic) present in flesh and seeds of fruit in higher amount (65.1%). Presence of magnesium and potassium salt in fruits also impart de-cholestrolizing action. In native medicines, role of brinjal in treatment of liver diseases, cough due to allergy, rheumatism, colilithiasis, leucorrhea and intestinal worms has been mentioned.

Origin and distribution

Brinjal is originated in Indo- Burma region (Vavliov, 1926). Crop is distributed in south and south East Asia, southern Europe, China and Japan. India is the second largest producer of brinjal in the world next to China and produces 83.47 lakh tonnes from an area of 5.02 lakh ha. Cultivation of brinjal is maximum in Orissa, West Bengal, Bihar and is also distributed in almost all states. Taxonomy Genus Solanum comprises approximately 2000 species, which include both tuber bearing and non-tuber bearing forms. Important edible species under non-tuber bearing forms are S. melongena, S. torvum, S. nigrum, S. macrocarpom, S. ferox and S. aethiopicum S. torvum used for its small clustered fruits for curry purpose and for drying. It is grown as a wild plant in backyards and roadsides. Due to its resistance to Fusarium wilt and bacterial wilt, S. torvum can be a resistant root stock for grafting cultivated S. melongena S. macrocarpom and S.aethiopicum grown for edible fruits and leaves.


Brinjal is warm season day neutral plant and is susceptible to severe frost. A long and warm growing season with a temperature range of 21-270C is ideal for its production. Crop is adversely affected by chilling temperature of winter in North India. Generally late cultivars can Withstand low temperature than early ones. Plants grown luxuriantly and yield heavily during rainy season under warm humid climatic condition of Kerala.


Brinjal is a hardy crop and is cultivated under a wide range of soils. Since a long duration crop with high yield, well-drained and fertile soil is preferred for the crop. Crops grown in sandy soils yield early and those grown in clayey soils yield more. Ideal pH for cultivation of crop is 5.5-6.6 Varieties


In hills, brinjal is sown during March and transplanted during April. In,lains there are three seasons for growing brinjal. Autumn-winter crop: Crop is sown in June and transplanted in July Spring -summer crop: Crop is sown in early November and transplanted in January-February. Due to low temperature, seedlings take 6 to 8 weeks for attaining normal size for transplanting and nursery beds are to be protected from frost. Rainy season crop Seeds are sown in March-April and transplanted during April-May. Being a low priced vegetable, rainy season crop is the most economical in many parts.


Manjari gota, Pusa purple round, Pusa purple long, Pusa purple Cluster, Pusa kranti, Pragati, Aruna, ABV-1, ABH-1. Local: Dorala, Bhatai, Hingana Dorala, Gulabi Dorala.


Krishna is a Fuji hybrid released in 1991 by MPKV Rahuri for Western Maharashtra. Plants tall, hardy and resistant to lodging. Egg-shaped, spiny, purple coloured fruits with white stripes borne mostly singly or occasionally in pairs. Good colour retention. Good acceptance in the home market. Average yield is 480 quintals per hectare. (MPKV, Rahuri).

Manjari Gota

Developed by selection from a local germplasm collected from village Manjari near Pune and released by the Department of Agriculture, in 1965 for Western Maharashtra, Plants are medium tall and spreading, spines on leaves, mid¬ribs and peduncle the fruits. Fruits are round purple -with white stripes. Average yield is 250 quintals per hectare. (MP.K.V. Rahuri).


Developed by selection from a cross Vaishali x Manjari Gota and released in 1988. It is an improved version of Valsbali. Plants are hardy and resistant to lodging, egg shaped purple fruits with-white stripes bome in clusters with spines on pedicel. Duration is 180-1 90 days. Average yield is 350 quintals per hectare. (M.P.K.V, Rahuri)


Developed by selection from a cross Manjari Gota x Arka Kusumakar and released in 1985. Plants are medium and spreading. Fruits oblong purple with1 white stripes. Fruits are borne in clusters (3″-4). Average yield is 350 quintals per hectare. (MPKV, Rahuri).


It gives about 10 per cent higher yield than Manjari Gota. It has shining and attractive fruit colour (purple and white stripes). Fruits are bome in cluster with spines on fruits, leaves and stem. (MAU, Parbliani).


This variety is released by MAU, Parbhani in 1985. It has become popular with the cultivators of Marathwada It has erect plant habits with faint purple stem colour and dark green leaves. Fruits are small round (50 g/fruit) with green purple stripes and spines on the calyx. Average yield is 250 quintals per hectare.(MAU, Parbhani) ((Aruna)) Notified during the year 1985-86. Plants are medium in height; fruits are oval in shape and violet in colour. Days to first harvest are 90 – 95. Yield is 3GO-385 quintals per hectare during kharif season. 200-225 quintals per hectare during summer season. (PKV, Akola).


Developed by employing pure line selection. 3t is good for kharif season. Average weight is 190 g. Fruit length is 16.2-cm. Fruit colour is green with white stripes at the tip, fruit surface is smooth. It produces 25 fruits per plant. Average yield is 330 quintals per hectare. Number of pickings are 18. Duration is 180 days.(MPKV Rahuri).


Seeds are sown in nursery bed and transplanted to main field after four weeks during summer and after 7 to 8 weeks during winter, when it is 8 – 10 cm tall. Depending on growth of varieties and seasons of cultivation, 300 to 3:500 g seeds are required for one hectare. Since brinjal seedlings grow fast, sufficient care must be taken to sow seeds as thin or loose as possible. Hardened seedlings withstand transplanting shock better and establish well in main field.


Proper drainage is essential for growth of brinjal. Soil should be prepared to a fine tilth by 4 to 6 ploughings. FYM should be incorporated in soil at the time of final ploughing. Seedlings .are transplanted in levelled land in plots of convenient size for irrigation. It may be grown on raised beds/ ridges during rainy season. In undulating land, in order to avoid soil erosion, small pits are dug at the point of planting and seedlings are planted. Spacing depends on variety, season and fertility of soil. For long duration spreading varieties, a spacing of 75-90cm x 60-75 cm and for bushy and non-spreading varieties a distance of 45-60cm on either side are given. For early and less spreading varieties, paired row planting is advantages due to, easiness in harvesting and other cultural operations.


Brinjal is a long duration crop with high yield potential. Flower and fruit production will be adversely affected when crop is grown under low fertility conditions. Depending on availability, 25 tonnes of FYM/ha may be incorporated in soil at the time of final ploughing. Application of wet cow dung as a band, 10 -12 cm away from the plant, followed by earthing up at fortnightly interval during rainy season is a common practice for high productivity in Kerala. Fertilizer requirement of crop varies with variety, season and type of soil. Fertilizer requirement for targeted production in Co-2 under Tamil Nadu condition is estimated and 7.6 kg N, 1.4 kg P and 17.3 kg K/ha are required to produce one tonnes of fruits. Fertilizer studies at various centres of AICRP (Vegetables) indicated varying results. Under Bangalore condition, 150 kg N and 100 Kg P20S were optimum while at Hisar it was 100 kg N and 60 kg P20sl ha. For a balanced nutrition, 30 to 60 kg ~O is included in fertilizer package of brinjal in most of the states. 1/3 N, full P and full K should be applied as basal dose and remaining N in 2 split doses, 1/3 at 25 days after planting and remaining 1/3 N 45 days after. Application of fertilizers in Tamil Nadu : Apply FYM 25 t/ha. N 50 kg, P 50 kg and K 30 kg/ha as basal dose, N 50 kg/ha 30 days after transplanting during earthing up. Apply 2 kg of Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria in the mainfield at planting. Spray 2 ppm (1 ml in 500 lit.) Triacontanol plus Sodium borate or Borax 35 mg/lit. of water 15 days after transplanting and at the time of full bloom to increase the yield.


Though brinjal cannot tolerate water logging, timely irrigation is essential especially for fruit set and development. In plains, irrigation is required at every third or 4th day during summer while in winter it should be at 10-15 days interval. During winter, care should be taken to keep soil moist to avoid crop loss due to frost injury. Being a row planted crop, drip irrigation is advantageous and water used in drip irrigation is only 24.47 cm compared to 69.18 cm under furrow method. Brinjal is mainly grown as a rainfed crop in high rainfall states like Kerala by transplanting seedlings just before onset of South West monsoon. Here also transplanted seedlings should be given one or two life irrigations for initial establishment.


It is essential to keep the field free of weeds especially at initial stages of crop growth and is usually done by 2-3 light hoeing or earthing up. This facilitates better aeration to root system and gives support to plants. Application of fluchloralin @ 1.5 kg a.i./ha as a preemergent weedicide, applied one week after transplanting seedlings, followed by one hand weeding at 30 days after planting controls a broad spectrum of weeds. Use of black polythene mulches is also efficient for suppression of weeds and for better growth of plants.


Whole plant spray of 2-4, D (2 ppm) at an interval of one week from 60 -70 days after planting from commencement of flowering increase fruit set, early yield and total yield in brinjal. Spray Mixtalool (long chain C24-C34 aliphatic alcohol) at 4 ppm, 4-6 weeks after transplanting, is also effective and gave additional yield of 7.1% in F1 hybrid Arka Navneet.


Brinjal fruits are harvested at immature stage after attaining full size, but before loosing its glossy appearance. Dullness of fruit indicates over maturity. Usually fruits are harvested along with its stalk with a slight twist by hand. In some varieties, a sharp knife is also used for harvesting fruits along with fleshy calyx and a portion of fruit stalk. The harvested fruits are graded and packed in baskets or in loose gunny bags. Care should be taken to remove the fruits affected by Phomopsis blight.


Early short duration varieties: 20-30 t/ha Long duration varieties: 35-40 t/ha FI hybrids: 55-80 t/ha Storage: Fruits can be stored for 7-10 days in a fairly good condition at 7.2-10°C with 85-90% RH. Keeping quality of fruits varies with variety. It is better to store at 20°C than at 6°C and in perforated polythene bags than under open condition.


Though brinjal is considered a self pollinated crop, varying amount of cross pollination takes place because of heterostyly. Cross pollination is mainly through honey bees and bumble bees. To encourage pollination, it is advisable to plant Mimosa pudica in the vicinity of brinjal plot. Isolation distance recommended for brinjal is 200 m for foundation seed and 100 m for certified seed. To maintain genetic purity, rouging should be conducted at pre flowering, flowering and initial fruiting stages. Leaving initial one or two harvests for vegetable purpose is advisable for detection and removal of off types and to avoid chances of contamination from off types. Fruits are harvested at full ripe stage and crushed with help of a wooden hammer or stone. Crushed fruits are soaked overnight in buckets for softening. This results in easy separation of seeds from pulp when pulp is stirred next day morning. Seeds are then washed with running water and dried under open sun light for half to one hour and later under partial shade till 8% moisture is reached. Depending on variety used and agronomic packages followed, yield varies from 100-350 kg/ha.


  1. A) Brinjal Fruit and Shoot Borer: It is one of the major and serious insect pests of brinjal. A short pinkish caterpillar bores into the terminal shoot and eats internal tissue; it bores into the young fruit through the calyx .leaving on visible sings of infestation. The large holes asually seen on the fruits are the exist holes of caterpillar. The insect affected fruits becomes unfit for consumption.

Control Measures:

  1. i) The insect affected part should be clipped along with insect and destroyed any fruit with holes should be picked and destroyed.
  2. ii) The affected crops should be sprayed with phosphamidon (demicron-100 EC) @.0.5 ml or diochlorovos (Sumthion-50 Ecfolilhion-50 ECc) @1 ml per litter of water at fortnightly interval or spraying with carbaryl 0.20% or Monocrotophos 0.05%
  3. B) Brinjal Stem Borer: A pale white caterpillar bore into the stem and kills the plant

Control measures: Same as for brinjal fruit and shoot borer.

  1. C) Leaf Eating Beetle: The beetle and grab feed on the leaves and other tender parts leading to a considerable reduction in the .yield of the egg plant.

Control Measures:

  1. Hand picking of egg and larval is the best method of, controlling this pest if infestation is only in few plants.
  2. This insect can effectively be controlled by spraying crop with Endosulphan (Thioden -35 EC) or Phentrothion (Sumithion-50 EC)@ 2 ml or Fenthion (Lebacid-IOOO EC) or Thiomiton (Ekatin-25 EC )@ I ml per litre of water.
  3. D) Nematode: The nature of damage and control measures of nematode is same as for potato nematode. The egg plants are also affected by mite, Jassids, Aphids and Mealy bug. They suck the sap from the leaves and in severe cases the whole plantation looks yellowish and leaves drop down prematurely. These insects except mites can effectively be controlled by spraying the crops with Methyl parathion (Metacid 50 EC) or Oxidemiton methyl (Metassystox 25 EV) @ 1 ml or Malathion-50 EC @ 2ml per litter of water at fortnightly. Interval, The mites can be controlled by spraying the crop with Dicophol (KeIthane-18.5EC ) @ 2 ml or Morocite-40 EV @ 1 rnl per litter of water.


  1. A) Damping Off: It is a serious disease of brinjal seedlings and mainly occurs in nursery bed. The disease infected seedlings rot at ground level and then the plants fall over ground. The seedlings die in patches.

Control Measures:

  1. The seed bed should be treated with Formalin before sowing of seeds.
  2. The seeds should be treated without water (30 minutes al 520 C) or Cerasan or Agrosan G.N. before sowing of seed.
  3. The seedlings in the nursery should be sprayed with any fungicides at an regular interval.
  4. B) Phomopsis Blight and Fruit Rot: It is a serious disease of brinjal. The fungus attacks all parts of the plants above ground. Dark brown lessions appear on the stem and round to oval spots are formed on the leaves. Disease fruits show short and watery lessions which litte on become black and mummified.

Control Measures:

  1. Use of disease free seeds, seeds treatment with some fungicide and long crop rotation are the most common remedial measures of this disease.
  2. Disease resistant variety (Such as Pusa Bhairab, Pusa Cluster etc.) should be Cultivated, iii. The disease can effectively be controlled by weekly spraying of nursery and field with Zineb (Dithane-Z-78) or Mancozeb (Dithane M-45) @ 2.5 gm per liter of water.
  3. C) Little Leaf of Brinjal: The affected plant produces numerous tinny Yellow I leaves and does not bear fruits. The disease is transmitted by leaf hopper.

Control Measures:

  1. The disease affected plants should be destroyed,
  2. The insect vector should be controlled by spraying the crop with Dimethoate (Rogor-30 EC or Oxydemiton methyl (Metasystox-25 EG) or Monocrotophos (Monocil )@ 1 ml per litre of water to check the spread of this disease,

iii. Disease resistant variety such as Pusa purple Cluster should be cultivated