Black Gram ranks the fourth position among the pulse crops cultivated in Bangladesh. About 9- 11% of the total pulse production in the country comes from black gram. The cultivation of black gram is higher in the north and north- western regions especially in Chapainababganj. Black gram is a hard and drought tolerant crop which can tolerate high temperature. Beside pulse, it is widely used as feed and green manure in green condition. Therefore, as a pulse crop, black gram is an important one. Now we shall learn about the cultivation method of black gram.
- LAND SELECTION
Well- drained loamy and loamy soils are suitable for the cultivation of black gram. Black gram can be cultivated in high to low all types of land if there is no possibility of water stagnancy. Black gram is crop of warm and dry climate.
There are many improved and local black gram varieties cultivated in Bangladesh.
The names of some black gram varieties are given below:
- HYV: BARI- 1 (Pantho), BARI- 2 (Sharat), BARI- 3 (Hemonta), BINAmas – 1, BINAmas- 2.
- Local varieties: Rajshahi, Sadhuhati
- LAND PREPARATION
It is not necessary to prepare land in well pulverized condition to cultivate black gram. Based on the type of land and soil the land is prepared by 2-3 ploughing and cross ploughing followed by laddering.
- TIME OF SEED SOWING
Black gram seeds can be sown from last week of February to mid-September. (Seed rate) The seed rate for cultivation is given below For seed purpose- Broadcasting method – 35 to 40 kg/ha and for line sowing 25 to 30 kg / ha For green manure or feed purpose – Broadcasting – 50 to 60 kg / ha
(( Methods of seed sowing))
Black gram seeds can be sown by broadcasting or by line sowing. But it is better to sow seeds in rows. When sown in rows, 30 cm distance is maintained between rows. The seeds are sown continuously in rows maintaining 2- 3cm depth. In broadcast method, seeds are spread all over the field uniformly during final ploughing and are covered with soil by laddering.
(( Seed treatment))
Seeds should be treated before sowing to control seed- borne diseases.
- FERTILIZER MANAGEMENT
The seed rate for black gram cultivation is as follows: Urea – 40 to 45 kg /ha , TSP – 85 to 95 kg/ha , MP- 30 to 40 Kg/ha and Bio fertilizer – 4 to 5 kg /ha
((Principles of Fertilizer Application))
- All the fertilizers should be applied during final land preparation.
- Urea fertilizer is not necessary if bio- fertilizer is applied.
- For per kg seed, 80 g bio- fertilizer should be applied.
- INTERCULTURAL OPERATIONS
- The weeds found after seedling emergence should be removed by nirani 15-20 days after emergence.
- Measures should be taken too drained out excess water if there is a possibility of water stagnancy.
- After seed sowing, if there is lack of moisture in the land, light irrigation should be given.
- After irrigation when ‘Jo’ condition prevails, surface hard layer should be broken.
- Measures should be taken to control insects and diseases in the crop field if infestations are found.
- DISEASE MANAGEMENT
Leaf spot of black gram:
Cause and dispersal of the disease: This disease is caused by the fungus Cercospora. This disease is dispersed by the crop residues, air and rain water. This disease is dispersed quickly under high humidity and high temperature. Symptoms of the disease: Round to oval small red spots are found on the infected leaf. The cells of the infected leaf area become dry and the leaf becomes porous. The entire leaf becomes blight if the infection is severe.
The disease resistant black gram varieties (BARI-1, BARI- 2 and BARI- 3) should be cultivated, No sooner the infection appear, the fungicides should be applied.
Powdery mildew disease
Cause and dispersal of the disease:
This disease is caused by the fungus Oidium. Generally, the infection of this disease is higher in dry season. This disease is dispersed by the seed, crop residues and air. Symptoms of the disease:
- Powdery layer is found on the dorsal side of the leaf.
- Powdery dusts are felt when touched by hand.
- Alternate hosts or crop residues should be burnt.
- Tilt or Theovit should be applied
. • Disease free seeds should be sown.
- Seed should be treated with fungicide before sowing.
Yellow mosaic virus:
Cause and dispersal of the disease:
This disease is caused by the mosaic virus. This disease is dispersed by the infected seed and crop residues. The white fly acts as the vector of this disease.
Symptoms of the disease:
- At first young leaves are infected.
- Yellow- green spots are formed on the infected leaves.
- The infected field looks yellow away from the field.
- Disease free seeds should be sown.
- Malathion should be applied to control white fly.
- The infected plant should be uprooted and burnt.
- Crop rotation should be adopted.
- The disease resistant black gram varieties (BARI-1, BARI- 2, BARI- 3 and BINA mas- 1) should be cultivated.
- INSECT MANAGEMENT
Black gram field may be infested by caterpillar. These insects eat leaves and juice of immature fruits. The whole plant along with leaves looks like a net. Consequently yield is reduced. On appearing of the infestation of these insects, they should be collected by hand and be destroyed. If infestation becomes higher, mixing appropriate amount of Symbush 10 EC per liter water should be sprayed. Besides, the stored black gram grains are also affected by adult insects and larvae. The insects bore the black gram seed coat, enter inside the seed and eat the inner part. Consequently the grains become light. Thus, seeds lost germination capacity and become unsuitable as food. Before storing, the seeds should be cleaned properly and dried bring the seed moisture content below 12%. For seed purpose, insects’ infestation can be controlled by mixing 300 g Malathion or Sevin 10% per ton seed.
- HARVESTING, THRESHING AND STORING
- Crop is harvested at last of May in kharif- I and at the last of October in kharif- II.
- Crop should be harvested at morning after maturity.
- Based on the variety, one or 2- 3 times black gram pods should be harvested.
- Pods should be harvested by hand at earlier harvest and the plants should be cut at base by sickle at the final harvest.
- Seeds should be collected by betting with the stick or by cattle after drying plants in the sunlight.
- After threshing, seeds are cleaned, dried well in the sun. The sun- dried seeds should be cooled and thereafter be stored in plastic pots, tins or drums so that the air cannot enter into the pots.
Based on the variety, the yield of black gram is 1.5- 2.0 tons per hectare